I originally thought my first substantive post would be about the Gestalt Principles of Perception. However, I realized it would be best to begin by laying a foundation upon which an understanding of the psychology of the senses could be built.
One of my favorite resources is the (now updated) 1997 report from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute on Seeing, Hearing and Smelling the World. It provides a nice background on how our brains process information using sight, sound and smell.
Download a pdf of the report.